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David and Solomon in the Quran and the Psalms

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David and Solomon in the Quran and the Psalms

2020. június 28. - 18:36

 

The Quran confirms the Scriptures that were revealed before it. Not only the Scriptures, but also missions which have not been recorded. Thus, the mission of Moses is a prophecy in Islam and the kingdoms of David and Solomon which were dedicated to the One God, are also considered missions. Because they subordinated their abilities to the One God, they are called in Arabic Muslims, what means subordinated, submitted

I will return to David and Solomon and other analogous cases, but first of all I must make it clear that the word Bible does not exist in Islam. Neither Old and New Testament exist. The latter one is a Christian division, since only Christianity qualifies the part as Old, which is continuous present for Jews. The Bible is an umbrella term that includes all scriptures, books, records approved by the church. Of these, the Quran mentions the Torah (the five books of Moses), the book of David (Zabur), and the Gospels. To be correct, Quran writes about one Gospel (Injeel)) and not four. This one doesn't exist. That would be the Gospel of Jesus. Instead, there are the Gospels of Matthew, Luke, Mark, and John, but if you read them well, they also don't exist. Their titles are: according to Matthew, according to Luke, according to Mark and according to John. If I write a book, at the author's place is this: written by Balázs Mihálffy. Who would read my book, "Smile from the Hell," according to Mihalffy?

In summary: The Quran provides certainty about the previous Scriptures, revelations. It confirms them, but does not consider their present form to be the same as the original doctrines were. We are not claiming that everything is wrong, but it may be a difference, since many human factors have played a role in the development of today's Bibles. In addition, the process of canonization of the first sacred texts (selection, authentication and legalization by the church) took approximately 300 years. Documents excluded by the Church from canonization are called apocryphal Scriptures. It is very likely that the third epistle of the Apostle John, written in the last years of the first century, is the last letter in the Bible today. But with this letter did not end canonization, but just began and lasted for 300 years. Many things had to happen before the Synod in Carthage, where the canonization process was finally closed in 397 A.D., defined the list of books which are mentioned the New Testament. The controversy and differences of opinion surrounding the books in Canon contain information that may raise serious questions.

So far, I have only mentioned the canonization of the New Testament. The situation is further distorted by copying, translations, text updates, etc. The Quran has been preserved by God (SWT) in the form it was revealed to Mohammed (peace be upon him) 1400 years ago. I return to David and Solomon, whose full story is not mentioned in the Quran narrative way. It assumes that the reader is aware of these. Let's not forget that we are talking about a reader who lived 1400 years ago for whom Biblical stories were part of everyday life. Thus, the Quran only gives lessons and confirms the divine nature of the missions. In the following, I try to compare the thoughts in the Quran with other Scriptures with intent that is not divisive but confirming.

And remember David and Solomon, when they gave judgment in the matter of the field into which the sheep of certain people had strayed by night: We did witness their judgment. (Quran 21:78)

To Solomon We inspired the (right) understanding of the matter: to each (of them) We gave Judgment and Knowledge; it was Our power that made the hills and the birds celebrate Our praises, with David: it was We Who did (all these things). (Quran 21:79)

The sheep, on account of the negligence of the shepherd, got into a cultivated field (or vineyard) by night and ate up the young plants or their tender shoots, causing damage, to the extent of perhaps a whole year's crop. David was king, and in his seat of judgment he considered the matter so serious that he awarded the owner of the field the sheep themselves in compensation for his damage. The Roman law of the Twelve Tables might have approved of this decision. His son Solomon, a mere boy of eleven, thought of a better decision, where the penalty would better fit the offence. The loss was the loss of the fruits or produce of the field of vineyard: the corpus of the property was not lost.
Solomon's suggestion was that the owner of the field or vineyard should not take the sheep altogether but only detain them long enough to recoup his actual damage, from the milk, wool, and possibly young of the sheep, and then return the sheep to the shepherd. David's merit was that he accepted the suggestion, even though it came from a little boy: Solomon's merit was that he distinguished between corpus and income, and though a boy, was not ashamed to put his case before his father. But in either case it was Allah Who inspired the true realization of justice. He was present and witnessed the affair, as He is present everywhere.
Whatever is in the heavens and the earth celebrates the praises of Allah: 17:44; 57:1; 16:48-50. Even the "thunder repeateth His praises": 13:13. David sang in his Psalms, 148:7-10: "Praise the Lord from the earth, ye ... mountains and all hills; ... creeping things and flying fowl!"

It was We Who taught him the making of coats of mail for your benefit, to guard you from each other's violence: will ye then be grateful? (Quran 21:80)

The making of coats of mails is attributed to David. It is defensive armor, and therefore its discovery and supply are associated with deeds of righteousness in 34:10-11, in contrast with the deadly weapons which man invents for offensive purposes.

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