Historical and religious antecendents
1979 brought a turning point in the history of Islam. Let's see what happened this year:
- Soviet troops marched into Afghanistan
- Juhayman al-Otaybi occupied the sanctuary of Mecca
- Iranian Islamic Revolution and takeover
- The outbreak of the Iraq-Iran war
These four events had an impact on each other and on world politics. For those who would not understand the second event, i.e. the occupation of the Mecca sanctuary, let me mention that Juhayman al-Oteybi was a man from an upscale Saudi family who questioned the raison d’être of the Al-Saudi dynasty. His thinking was greatly influenced by the teachings of the Muslim Brotherhood. He organized a riot with his followers and occupied the sanctuary of Kaaba. Another interesting thing. He declared his cousin, Mohammed Abdullah al-Qahtani, as Mehdi, who comes before the Day of Judgment and establish order among the believers. The uprising was broken down by the Saudi authorities. From this event onwards, there is a sharp tension between the Saudi dynasty, including the Gulf monarchies, and the Muslim Brotherhood. The only exception is Qatar, which is currently the headquarter of the Muslim Brotherhood. Among others, this explains the discord between the Gulf States and Qatar.
To understand the Mehdi doctrine, however, let us see the lineage of descents of Mohamed (peace be upon him). And let's move on to Iran from here. The line begins with Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the Prophet’s nephew, and ends with the 11th Imam, who was Hasan Ibn Ali:
- Ali Ibn Abi Talib (600-661)
- Hasan Ibn Ali (625-670)
- Husein Ibn Ali (626-680)
- Ali Ibn Husein (658-712)
- Mohammed Ibn Ali (677-732)
- Jafar Ibn Mohammed (702-765)
- Musa Ibn Dzsafar (744-799)
- Ali Ibn Musa (765-817)
- Mohammed Ibn Ali (810-835)
- Ali Ibn Mohammed (827-868)
- Hasan Ibn Ali (846-874)
- Mehdi (869-)
So, they are the infallible and immaculate imams. Most of them were followed by a separate school of believers, but together they form the Order of the Twelve Imams, the most significant Shiite doctrine. Yes, but where is the 12th imam? Because the 11th had no offspring. Or rather, he had, his name was Mohammed, but no one saw him. So, he is the twelfth, the latent imam, also known as the Mehdi. How can Mehdi lead the people if he is hiding? It happened by the “gates” leading to him provided by four scholars. These four scholars were the “gates”. Through them, Mehdi conveyed the orders. That's what faith was about. The time has come and the four gates also died. Then that the concept spread that Mehdi is alive, will not die, and will appear before the Day of Judgment. Until then, infallible imams maintain faith and order.
Then happened to come in 1979 the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Khomeini ayatollah, based on the doctrine of Mehdi, did nothing else than what Theodor Herzl did regarding Zionism. As Herzl dreamed about a Jewish state by bringing forward the coming of the Messiah on reference of the biblical doctrines, so did Khomeini on the Shiite side. He created his own principle, i.e. velayat alfaqih, which assigns the power to the theologians. So, until the Mehdi comes, religious leaders must decide on matters of faith and power. In the euphoric mood that prevailed in Iran, this principle triggered chain reactions outside Iran as well, even in countries following Sunni schools. From this time started the appearance and later intensification of an Islamic image, which, unlike the classical doctrine, is not based on inner peace, balance, contentment, but on something else. Several theologians have raised their voices against the view of velayet al-faqih, including grand ayatollah Montazeri, the second most popular religious leader and philosopher after the Imam of Khomeini, who therefore had to be under house arrest for the rest of his life. In Iran, since the outbreak of the Islamic Revolution, to this day, 55,000 people have been executed for their convictions that disagreed with the power assigned to the theologians.
In 1979, world politics was very active and velayet al-faqih also did its job and reinforced the creation and militarization of similar organizations on the side of Saudi counterpart, supported by violent Wahhabi principles. And these principles for today nobody knows in what direction were developed to be more barbaric. There are those who manipulate them all. Where is Islam? Just look for it inside yourself!