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Fitna, i.e. temptation, perturbation, intrigue, disruption

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Fitna, i.e. temptation, perturbation, intrigue, disruption

2020. szeptember 23. - 17:59


They followed what the evil ones gave out (falsely) against the power of Solomon: the blasphemers Were, not Solomon, but the evil ones, teaching men Magic, and such things as came down at Babylon to the angels Harut and Marut. But neither of these taught anyone (Such things) without saying: "We are only for trial; so, do not blaspheme. " They learned from them the means to sow discord between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's permission. And they learned what harmed them, not what profited them. And they knew that the buyers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the Hereafter. And vile was the price for which they did sell their souls, if they but knew! (Quran 2:102)

Solomon had a power what no other men had, but this power was from God and not what Satans inspired. There is a big difference between belief and magic. People sometime believe in magic as faith but this is blasphemy. Magic can cause blindness of heart and mind. It can extinguish the fire of faith in God and can push people astray from the path. It can generate false images on special skills what humans have but these are tricks and deceptions. Harut and Marut were thwo angels of Babylon. In the old language angel meant also man with good and noble attitude as in the language of today angel can mean a nice lady. Therefore, there is a theory what says that Harut and Marut were astrologists who taught people for issues what delighted them. However, the two “angels” always gave warning: We are only for trial so do not blaspheme! Don’t lose your faith in God! And we’ve reached to the problem of all times. People choose magic and leave faith. They believe their eyes and ignore their hearts till it gets blind. They wish a man-made miracle what make them divorce from their wife and make them get new relation with a beautiful new one. These manipulation and deception occupy the place of faith. These phenomena were common in history and today. New “apostles” in the name of all religions are running up and down committing deception on the expense of our Hereafter.

  1. Not only man but even thoughts linked to traditions can be deceptive no matter those were born willingly with bad intention or born by ignorance.
    1. Traditions are habits followed by human communities. Maybe they are nice and represent part of the local culture, but they cannot be considered as basement for jurisprudence. Law is in permanent progress while traditions are fixed to a particular historical period.
    2. In the above reference the angels themselves drew attention to the magic as deception and call it Fitna. Anyone who deceive others no matter on behalf of religious or secular institute commits Fitna.
  2. Whatever is created by men there is a chance for mistakes or sins. If man makes law, he does it out of his interest. As far as law regulates properties, power, heritage, relations between members of society therefore law is definitely standing on the side of people who practice power or possess properties. Whoever deals with secular jurisprudence is under effect of deception which is Fitna. This sort of point of view results confusion in world vision and thinking while Islam prescribes Basira, the vision by heart. The one who uses merely his eyes for vision can see only the physical world and is not able to experience what heart can do in case this skill unfolds after practicing it. Heart can see more and in different way like eye. Heart can see even the motives of theft or committing other crime, not the mere physical act like eye does. Therefore, human made laws result in many case deceiving conclusions what have not be taken as reference.

And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith. (Quran 2:191)

Many people emphasize today the verses in Quran which call for war and introduce Islam as a religion of violence. This is not true. If we take out the text from the context and we don’t know the occasion what caused the revelation to come we go astray. This passage illustrates the events that happened at Hudaybiya in the sixth year of the Hijra. The Muslims by this time were a strong and influential community. Many of them were exiles from Mecca where the Pagans had established an intolerant autocracy, persecuting Muslims, preventing them from visiting their homes, and even keeping them out by force from performing Pilgrimage during the universally recognized period of truce. This was intolerance, oppression and autocracy to the last degree and the mere readiness of the Muslims to enforce their rights as Arab citizens resulted without bloodshed in an agreement. The Pagans however had no scruples in breaking faith. In general, it may be said that Islam is the religion of peace, goodwill and mutual understanding. But it will not acquiesce in wrong-doing and its men will hold their lives cheap in defense of honor, justice and the religion which they hold sacred. In this aya and later too, we read the world “Fitna”. The meaning of this word can be summed up as temptation, perturbation and intrigue together. In Islam Fitna is the biggest sin, bigger than murder. If there is no Fitna as internal intention promoting man to commit deeds against others, even realized sin and crime will not occur.

And fight them on until there is no more Tumult (Fitna) or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah. But if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression. (Quran 2:193)

The prohibited month for the prohibited month, - and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality (Qisas). If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. (Quran 2:194)

O ye who believe! the law of equality (Qisas) is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty. (Quran 2:178)

In the Law of Equality (Qisas) there is (saving of) Life to you, o ye men of understanding; that ye may restrain yourselves. (Quran 2:179)

Qisas, the law of equity is in force even in war. No more restriction or sanction than the committed act. The law of equality “Qisas” is supposed to be implemented only for murder case where killing occurred intentionally. For cases where death occurs coincidentally “Qisas” has to be avoided. Forgiving plays central role in Islam as the grant in order to give response for positive act. Positive gestures can establish positive society. Qisas (law of equality) can save two life plus gives one. If it is implemented properly it frightens the offender to commit the crime and the targeted person will not fall a pray. Two persons will stay alive: the potential offender and the potential victim. Plus, the society will enjoy life where everybody is secured.

The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah. for ((Allah)) loveth not those who do wrong. (Quran 42:40)

When you stand up for rights, either on private or public grounds, it may be through processes of law, or by way of private defence in so far as the law permits private action. But in all cases you must not seek a compensation greater than the injury suffered. The most you can do is to demand equal redress, i.e., a harm equivalent to the harm done to you. Even this may serve to curb your unregenerate soul, or a community bent on revenge. But the ideal mode is not to slake your thirst for vengeance, but to follow better ways leading to the reform of the offender or his reconciliation. See 41:34, and 23:96.

They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: "Fighting therein is a grave (offence); but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members." Tumult and oppression (Fitna) are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein. (Quran 2:217)

The month of pilgrimage (Dzhu al-Hijja) was a sacred month in which warfare was prohibited by Arab custom. The month preceding (Dzhu al-Qaada) and the month following (Muharram) were included in the prohibition. If the pagan enemies of Islam broke that custom and made war in the prohibited months the Muslims were free also to break that custom but only to the same extent as the others broke it. Similarly, the territory of Mecca was sacred in which war was prohibited. Any convention is useless if one party does not respect is. There must be a law of equality.

He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:" and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding. (Quran 3:7)

Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people: Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto: if they withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands, seize them and slay them wherever ye get them: In their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them. (Quran 4:91)

As opposed to the two classes of deserters to whom clemency may be shown, there is a class which is treacherous and dangerous and cannot be left alone. They try to win your confidence, and are all the time in the confidence of the enemy. Every time they get a chance, they succumb to the temptation of double-dealing. The best way of dealing with them is to treat them as open enemies. Keep them not in your midst. If they give you guarantees of peace and do not actually fight against you, well and good. If not, they are deserters actively fighting in the ranks of the enemy. They have openly given you proof, and you can fairly seize and slay them in war as deserters and enemies.

  1. The above verses are about Fitna committed by men directly. Murdering can be committed even with good intention but perturbation, intrigue, disruption cannot be achieved with good will. If Fitna was ceased no motive come to be for committing crime. Therefore, not only the realized crime has to be analyzed but the motive as well what pushed the person towards the crime. So, the Fitna has to be explored as basic demand. Anybody participated in Fitna is considered main criminal, as far as Fitna has to be considered main sin. This principle can be applied even in jurisdiction conducted after war. Not simple soldiers served in frontlines are considered as main criminals for actions committed in different combats but the scenario writers, battle plan makers and commanders have to be judged. This principle should be followed even in the civil jurisdiction.
  2. In Islam the measure of sanction has to be equal with the measure of the committed deed. This principle is called Qisas.

And fear tumult or oppression, which affecteth not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong: and know that Allah is strict in punishment. (Quran 8:25).

This warning against internal discord or tumult was very necessary in the Civil Wars of early Islam, and was never more necessary than it is now. For it affects innocent and guilty alike.

And know ye that your possessions and your progeny are but a trial; and that it is Allah with Whom lies your highest reward. (Quran 8:28)

A big family-many son-was considered a source of power and strength: 3:10. Psalms, 127:4-5: "As arrows are in the hands of a mighty man, so are the children of thy youth. Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them; they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate." So, with property and possessions: they add to a man's dignity, power, and influence. But both possessions and a large family are a temptation and a trial. They may turn out to be a source of spiritual downfall, if they are mishandled, or if the love of them excludes the love of Allah.

Family or property can be Fitna as well.

  1. People are proud of their family and sometime they are ready to commit acts blindly for growing the power of their clan or increasing their influence. When these acts hurt others no matter the sanctity of blood relation, the family has to be considered as Fitna because it was the motive of the crime.
  2. Property and wealth can generate sin, too. Many people are tempted to acquire goods with all means.

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do. (Quran 8:39)

The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: Unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief. (Quran 8:73)

If they had come out with you, they would not have added to your (strength) but only (made for) disorder, hurrying to and fro in your midst and sowing sedition among you, and there would have been some among you who would have listened to them. But Allah knoweth well those who do wrong. (Quran 9:47)

Indeed, they had plotted sedition before, and upset matters for thee, until, - the Truth arrived, and the Decree of Allah became manifest much to their disgust. (Quran 9:48)

Every soul shall have a taste of death: and We test you by evil and by good by way of trial. to Us must ye return. (Quran 21:35)

The soul does not die, but when it separates from the body at the death of the body, the soul gets a taste of death. In our life of probation on this earth, our virtue and faith are tested by many things: some are tested by calamities, and some by the good things of this life. If we prove our true mettle, we pass our probation with success. In any case all must return to Allah, and then will our life be appraised at its true value.

Allah hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur'an: and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah. then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme. (Quran 9:111)

We offer our whole selves and our possessions to Allah, and Allah gives us Salvation. This is the true doctrine of redemption: and we are taught that this is the doctrine not only of the Quran but of the earlier Revelations, -the original Law of Moses and the original Gospel of Jesus. Any other view of redemption is rejected by Islam, especially that of corrupted Christianity, which thinks that some other person suffered for our sins and we are redeemed by his blood. It is our self-surrender that counts, not other people's merits. Our complete self-surrender may include fighting for the cause, both spiritual and physical. As regards actual fighting with the sword there has been some difference in theological theories at different times. In the New Testament St. Paul, in commending the worthy fruits of Faith, mentions Gideon. Barak, and other warriors of the Old Testament as his ideals, "Who through faith subdued kingdoms... waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens..." (Hebrews, 11:32-34).

Fitna is present in every level. It is there in individuals, properties, social traditions, deceptions, in fact in laws. What is the solution? Spiritual solution is the practice of faith (Ibadat). Regarding Islamic jurisprudence according to the referred verses not life and not wealth can be considered as property of man. All issues belong to Allah as the earth where one can migrate from one place to another. Life and wealth is a sort of loan deposited at man by Allah in order to expose him to trial in course of lifetime. The right of lender is to set up conditions regarding the good conduct with the deposited loan. No matter what kind of Fitna, trial, intrigue comes, those have no effect if the deal with God works. The deposited body dies but the spirit doesn’t. Spirit has to reckon with the deposited articles.




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